Selected Archival Links

The links below include a wide range of archival and library sites, some of which have digital imagery, and others of which only include descriptive catalogs of holdings. Please note that I have developed detailed instructions for first-time users of several of the most important Spanish archival websites (with indices of primary sources and online document imagery), which can be found on my Primer on Using Online Colonial Spanish Documentary Sources. I will continue to add to this site as new online archival sites become available.

See also Quick Archival Research Links.

Other Links Pages: General / Writing / JournalsArchivalArchaeologyOrganizations

Categories below: Spanish / French / Other ColonialState and NationalMapsPaleographyMiscellaneous

Spanish Colonial Archival Repositories


PARES (Portal de Archivos Espanoles) (inventory and Search Engine, including extensive digitalized document imagery from many public archives in Spain, such as those below; see the appropriate section of my Primer on Using Online Colonial Spanish Documentary Sources for detailed instructions on how to utilize this important website; see also the search engine for the Censo-Guía de Archivos de España e Iberoamérica below)

Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla)

Archivo General de Simancas (Simancas, Valladolid)

Archivos Militares

Archivo General Militar de Madrid (Madrid)

Archivo Cartográfico y de Estudios Geográficos del Centro Geográfico del Ejército (Madrid)

Museo Naval (Madrid)

Archivo General de la Marina "Álvaro de Bazán" (Viso del Marqués, Ciudad Real)

Red de Bibliotecas de Defensa (searchable database of holdings by the Spanish Ministry of Defense, including many maps and other documents relating to Spanish Florida; make sure use the advanced search page, and set the number of results to 100 to get all results)

Biblioteca Nacional (searchable database of holdings in the Spanish national library in Madrid, including manuscripts, maps, and historical books, some digitized; see search engine and also the PDF Inventario General de Manuscritos)

Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (searchable image database from the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, with several Florida maps)

Real Academia de la Historia (includes a collection of digital maps and a search page)

Archivo Histórico Provincial de Sevilla (important source for New World history including the Archivo de Protocolos de Sevilla, with detailed inventories of holdings and a downloadable Catálogo de los Fondos Americanos del Archivo de Protocolos de Sevilla)

Archivos Históricos de la Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa (notarial archive of Gipuzkoa in the Basque country, available in Spanish; includes search page for digitized and undigitized documents)

Archivos de Euskadi (Basque archives hub; includes search page for both digitized and undigitized documents)

Gobierno de Canarias: Consulta de Documentos de Archivo (search page with access to an online catalog of documents in the Canary Islands)

Archivo de la Cámara Oficial de Comercio, Industria y Navegación de Sevilla (descriptive listing of documentation available at the little-used archive relating to shipping and maritime trade during the colonial era)

Institucion Colombina (web page, including searchable catalog, for the various libraries and archives associated with the Archbishopric of Seville, and the Cathedral of Seville; includes the surviving original library of Christopher Columbus and his son Fernando)

Fondo Antiguo (searchable page containing digitized rare books in the collection of the Universidad de Sevilla)

Fototeca: Sección Planimetría (digital images of early 20th-century photographs of architectural plans from the Archivo General de Indias; maintained by the Laboratory of Art of the University of Seville in their Fototeca, which includes a wide range of other imagery including some other handwritten colonial documents).


Archivo General de la Nacion (main page of the Mexico City archive, which includes a fully searchable Guide to holdings; see the appropriate section of my Primer on Using Online Colonial Spanish Documentary Sources for detailed instructions on how to utilize this important website).

Archivo Franciscano (searchable index of digitized portions of the Fondo Franciscano in Mexico City's Biblioteca Nacional, amounting presently to about a fifth of the total collection)

Archivo General de Notarias de la Ciudad de Mexico (index of the notarial archive for Mexico City dating to the early 16th century, including detailed transcripts of many contracts and inventories of goods; search by checking the box "Resumen" and entering search terms in Spanish)

Archivos Notariales de la Universidad Veracruzana (detailed and well-organized index of the 16th-19th-century notarial archives of three major colonial cities of Xalapa, Orizaba and Córdoba in the State of Veracruz in Mexico, including complete indices by types of notarial instrumentgeographic names, and personal names, and many digital images of original documents online)

Codex Mendoza (beautifully digitized online 16th-century document with Spanish text and Aztec imagery)


Archivo Nacional de la Republica de Cuba (main page of the Havana archive, with only general text inventories of holdings; often extremely slow or incomplete in loading)


Archivo General de Centro América (main page of the archive in Guatemala, with only general information on holdings)

United States

Slave Societies Digital Archive, Vanderbilt Univ. (extensive digital imagery of of wide range of ecclesiastical and other documents, including CubaFlorida, and elsewhere; opportunities available for researchers to generate and submit transcriptions to the site)

Spanish Colonial Records on Microfilm at the University of Florida (an excellent inventory of the best collection of Spanish Florida primary sources this side of the Atlantic; includes searchable calendar of holdings for the East Florida Papers andPapeles de Cuba; hosted by the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History)

Unearthing St. Augustine's Colonial Heritage (a digital repository of records including historic photographs)

UWF University Archives and West Florida History Center (main page, which includes a Guide to Manuscripts and Special Collections to holdings, as well as some online Digital Content)

St. Augustine Historical Society Research Library (main page, including a searchable catalog of library holdings, including many microfilms of original Spanish records; includes the original John Batterson Stetson Collection of photostats from the Archivo General de Indias now curated here; the Stetson Collection card calendar for the years 1512-1763 is available online)

St. Augustine Foundation Center for Historic Research (main page of the archive, which holds 950 reels of microfilm; no online index or imagery)

Mark F. Boyd Collection (finding aid to the research collections of Mark Boyd, housed at the University of Miami Libraries Special Collections department in Coral Gables)

Hispanic Division, Library of Congress (an excellent and comprehensive inventory of microform and other holdings of documentary records from a wide range of Spanish archives)

Bancroft Library Guide to the Archivo General de Indias (well-organized finding aid to AGI materials in the Bancroft collections, with brief text descriptions of each document in their holdings)

Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas (digitized records of predominantly Second Spanish Florida between 1786-1803, but including a few others as early as 1576; maintained by the University of Notre Dame Archives)

Documentary Relations of the Southwest (searchable database of archival sources; includes some Florida references)

Other Locations

Censo-Guía de Archivos de España e Iberoamérica (Spain-based searchable index for many colonial Spanish archives across the Spanish empire)

The Guaman Poma Website (digital imagery and full transcription of El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno, by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, dating to 1615 but with extensive hand-drawn illustrations of Spanish clothing and material culture typical of the 16th-century colonial era).

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French Colonial Archival Repositories

Gallica (extensive searchable database of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, including ManuscriptsMaps, and Books)

France in America (Library of Congress website with extensive online primary source material)

La France en Amérique (Bibliothèque Nationale de France website with extensive online primary source material)

New France,  New Horizons (digital online archive of French colonial sources developed by the Direction des Archives de France, Library and Archives Canada, and the Canadian Embassy in Paris)

Louisiana Digital Library (extensive selected imagery of manuscript documents)

Records of the French Superior Council (1714-1769)

Early Louisiana French Correspondence

French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, and Nineteenth-Century Louisiana Documents

Louisiana State Museum Historical Map Collection

Archival Materials (extensive and well-organized collection of digital imagery and bibliographic source references for French colonial Louisiana, maintained by Vin Steponaitis at UNC-Chapel Hill; includes pages below:)

Early Maps of the American South

Colonial Louisiana: Historical Narratives

Colonial Natchez: Early French Documents (centralized initiative to preserve access to Canadian documentary heritage, including many subsites below:)

Héritage (searchable online collection of primary documentary images from microfilm)

Early Canadiana Online (searchable imagery of print documents online)

Canadiana Discovery Portal (searchable portal to a range of online Canadian archival collections)

Haldimand Papers (microfilmed transcriptions of manuscript records online; a useful index can be found here)

Archives de France (central portal for many French archives)

Archives (another portal maintained by the French Ministry of Culture)

Archives Nationales (French national archives)

Archives nationales d'outre mer (French overseas archives)

Les Archives diplomatiques du ministère des Affaires étrangères (French diplomatic archives)

Service historique de la défense (French military archives)

Fonds d'archives numérisés de la Loire-Atlantique(lots of original text and map documents)

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Other Colonial Archival Repositories

Library of Congress (searchable catalog for digitized ManuscriptsMaps, and many other media)

Discovery: The National Archives (UK) (searchable digital imagery from the British National Archives, though full images only available by purchase; see the Catalogue of the Colonial Office for more detail on colonial records)

The British Library: Archives and Manuscripts (searchable catalog of holdings, including Digitised Manuscripts)

UK Hydrographic Office (includes archive)

British History Online (searchable digital database of printed primary and secondary sources)

Digital Library of the Caribbean (searchable digital imagery of a range of media)

Archive of Early American Images (extensive and searchable collection of maps, prints, and other documents digitized by the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)

Florida Online: British East Florida (several sets of transcribed documents from Florida's British Period, including Letters to Governor James Grant, 1764-1769, and translations of British-Period Spanish letters from Havana regarding Relations with the Uchiz Indians, 1771-1783; hosted by the University of North Florida).

The Atlantic World and the Dutch: North America (web site on sources for Dutch colonialism; see also the National Archives of the Netherlands)

Internet Archive Text Archive (searchable digital imagery of historic books located in a variety of different collections, including Project Gutenberg, which contains text-only OCR scans of a wide range of historical books).

World Digital Library (great centralized source for a diverse range of digital imagery, including scans of many colonial-era books and maps)

Munich Digitization Center (searchable digital imagery of historic books and maps from the Bavarian State Library)

Vatican Library: Manuscripts (catalog and some Digital Imagery; also see the main Vatican Library catalog page)

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U.S. State and National Archives

Florida / Georgia / Alabama / Mississippi / Louisiana / South Carolina / National Archives / Library of Congress

See also the complete list of documents digitized by commercial partners of the National Archives.

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Historical Maps and Land Records

LABINS: Florida General Land Office Records (digital imagery of early Florida land plats and field notes, searchable by Township and Range; see 1866 map index to section/range numbers here)

Spanish Land Grants in Florida (digitized records relative to early land grants in Florida, from the State Archives of Florida)

Florida Map Collections (large database of map images from the Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida)

Aerial Photography: Florida (online digital imagery of historic USDA aerial photos dating as early as the 1930s; hosted by UF's Smathers Libraries; also see map search)

UF Map & Imagery Library (online imagery of maps and aerial and satellite photos; hosted by the Smathers Libraries)

Historic Maps of Florida (high-resolution digital images of many historical maps from Florida and elsewhere; part of the David Rumsey Map Collection, which also has a really amazing and easy-to-use online Georeferencer for all its maps)

Old Florida Maps (a nice selection of historic Florida map images, grouped chronologically; hosted by the University of Miami Libraries)

Exploring Florida Maps (a categorized selection of Florida maps and map sections from a website for social studies teachers)

Georgia's Virtual Vault (among digitized collections are Historic Maps and Headright and Bounty Plats and District Plats of Survey with digital scans of 18th- and 19th-century land plats, along with District Survey Field Notebooks)

Louisiana State Museum Historical Map Collection (a nice selection of historic state and regional maps; downloadable)

USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection (scanned images of historical topographic maps from various states, though still missing Florida as of December 2011; includes a search engine and a map interface)

Office of Coast Survey, Historical Map & Chart Project (searchable NOAA database with digital images of OCS coastal charts from the 18th-20th centuries; modern charts available here)

Hargrett Library Rare Map Collection, Univ. of Georgia (extensive online imagery)

Library of Congress Map Collections (extensive online imagery, hosted at the American Memory site)

North Carolina Maps (an excellent and large collection of high-resolution historical maps of the Carolinas and surrounding regions, including some that show Spanish Florida)

Alabama Maps Collection (digitized maps available through the Digital Collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and History)

Archival Materials (an excellent and extensive collection of digitized maps and texts from the colonial Southeast, maintained by Vin Steponaitis at UNC Chapel Hill; contains Early Maps of the American South, including the complete Crown Collection of Photographs of American Maps)

Selections from the d'Anville Collection, Bibliothèque Nationale (good selection of online French colonial map imagery, linked from the Library of Congress, Global Gateway)

Inventory of the Louis Charles Karpinski Collection (a detailed inventory of an extensive colonial map collection dating from 1500-1799; the original map copies from diverse archives are located in the Huntington Library, San Marino, California)

Harvard Map Collection: Digital Maps (searchable imagery of maps, including many direct links to the Rumsey Collection, but also other historical map images in the Harvard collection)

Historical Maps of Pennsylvania (great and well organized site with digital images of a broad range of early colonial maps of Pennsylvania and the eastern Atlantic seaboard region)

LABINS (Land Boundary Information System for the state of Florida; includes digital USGS topographic maps for the entire state; also see map interface)

National Geodetic Survey Datasheet Page (includes map interface and individual search engines leading to detailed elevation information for terrestrial benchmarks; also includes searches for tidal benchmark datasheets)

Web Soil Survey (USDA website allowing users to construct their own customizable soil survey map/report for virtually any locale in the United States)

Office of Coast Survey (NOAA site with access to modern coastal charts)

Geo.Data.Gov (centralized website with direct access to extensive US government spatial datasets, including GIS)

Historical Maps and Atlases of U.S. and States (great genealogy-focused site that includes detailed interactive county formation maps for all states including Florida and others)

New York Public Library Maps of North America (great collection of digitized maps from all over North America)

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(section includes both tutorials and links to additional online manuscript documents in English for practice)

Spanish Paleography

Spanish Paleography Tool(excellent new online instructional site maintained by the Dominican Studies Institute at CUNY; examples mostly 16th to early 17th century)

Manual de paleografía diplomatica española de los siglos XII al XVII (online or full PDF version of 1917 published volume on Spanish paleography)

Anales de la Paleografía Española (online or full PDF version of 1857 published volume on Spanish paleography)

Compendio de Paleografía Española (online images of all pages of 1857 published volume on Spanish paleography)

Paleografía Castellana (partial preview of 2002 reprint of 1862 book on Spanish paleography)

French Paleography

Techniques pour l'Historien en Ligne : Études, Manuels, Exercices (includes a Dossier with extensive imagery of late Medieval French documents)

Cours de paléographie - Archive du cours d'Arisitum (online paleography course with extensive imagery)

English Paleography

Online Palaeography Tutorial (by the National Archives in the UK)

English Handwriting, 1500-1700: An Online Course (includes Links)

Early Modern Palaeography (online course regarding English paleography; also available for Medieval Palaeography)

Scottish Handwriting (online tutorial and resources regarding Scottish paleography)

Deciphering Old Handwriting (brief page designed for genealogy enthusiasts)

Manuscript Studies: Medieval and Early Modern (great comprehensive page with lots of good information about paleography in general)

English Paleography (the first of three successive pages with transcriptions and images of medieval English documents)

Hints and Tips: Palaeography II, Reading Secretary Hand  (useful guide from the Society of Genealogists in London)

English Language Manuscript Documents (includes sites unrelated to colonial-era studies for purposes of practice)

Florida Memory Project (many digitized manuscript image collections, including Spanish Land Grants in Florida,Confederate Pension Files, the Zephaniah Kingsley Papers, selected Supreme Court Records, and several diaries and other records; maintained by the State Archives of Florida)

National Archives Archival Research Catalog (searchable index of archival resources, some of which are digitally reproduced; see alsoArchival Descriptions Advanced Search)

Library of Congress collections (extensive digitized collections with manuscript documents, including the following examples)

Thomas Jefferson Papers (many contemporary handwritten documents from Jefferson's time, but also including original 17th- and early 18th-century records from early Virginia history, such as Virginia Records, 1606-1727, as well as a brief but useful section About Early Modern English)

James Madison Papers (mostly 18th and early 19th century manuscripts)

George Washington Papers (an assortment of 18th century manuscripts)

Papers of the War Department, 1784-1800 (project to accumulate manuscript records to replace official records lost to fire; includes images of documents that can be transcribed and submitted to the site; hosted by George Mason University)

West Florida Public Libraries (database listing includes home portal to HeritageQuest Online, a geneaologically-oriented search site including free access to digitized U.S. federal census images also available on the pay site

US GenWeb Archives - Census Images (links to a selection of online census images that are available free of charge; organized by state, county, and census year)

New York Public Library Digital Collections (includes a range of digital sample imagery from many periods)

Cornell University Rare and Manuscript Collections Images (an assortment including manuscript images)

Yale University Manuscripts and Archives Digital Images Database (selection of images)

Cooperative Digital Resources Initiative (a range of imagery hosted by the American Theological Library Association, such as 18th-century manuscripts by John Wesley)

Salem Witch Trials: 17th Century Documents (a remarkably extensive collection of late 17th-century documents associated with this period)

Digital Donne (manuscript copies of many of John Donne's 17th-century poems; hosted by Texas A&M Universitiy)

Westchester County (New York) Historical Society (small but excellent collection of digitized manuscript documents)

History of the United Kingdom: Primary Documents (chronologically-ordered series of primary sources, including some digital imagery)

Early Modern Resources: Primary Sources (extensive set of useful links to online primary sources, including some digital imagery)

Georgia's Virtual Vault (several searchable collections of digital document imagery, hosted by the Georgia Archives of the University System of Georgia; examples of 18th-century manuscripts include Colonial Wills and Colonial Will Books andColonial Estate Records)

Alabama Textual Materials Collection (digitized manuscripts including both colonial-era and American-era documents; maintained by the Digital Collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and History)

University of Mississippi Archives and Special Collections, Digital Collections (excellent collection of a range of primary sources from many periods, including a good set of Civil War correspondence searchable by location)

Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Digital Archives (another searchable collection of digital images of colonial- and early American-era manuscripts).

The Plymouth Colony Archive Project (a great assortment of transcripts of a range of 17th-century documents from the Plymouth colony; no digital document images so far)

American Journeys: Find a Document (mostly images of published transcripts and translations of original documents, but some handwritten manuscripts also available)

Miscellaneous Paleography Resources

World Digital Library (diverse global collection including manuscripts from a wide range of places, times, and languages)

17th and 18th Century Paleographic (and other) Resources Online (links to a variety of sites in several languages)

Script Tutorial:  Making Sense of Old Handwriting (genealogy-focused site covering paleography in multiple languages)

Repositories of Primary Sources (very comprehensive listing of archives including online archival imagery, organized by geographic region/country; even when links are old or broken, the listing should be helpful in finding sources; hosted by University of Idaho Special Collections)

EuroDocs: Online Sources for European History (extensive set of links including document images, facsimiles, transcriptions, and translations)

Digital Librarian: Archives & Manuscripts (extensive set of links with online manuscript imagery)

American Memory (the searchable Library of Congress website with a range of historical resources)

Medieval Manuscripts (extensive links from the Medieval Studies program at Georgetown University)

Medieval Source Material on the Internet (great starting point to find digital imagery online)

Digital Medieval Manuscripts at Houghton Library (extensive collection of digitized manuscripts in many languages, housed at Harvard University; see also the Book of Hours collection)

Digital Scriptorum (searchable centralized database of online digital imagery of medieval and renaissance manuscripts, housed at the Bancroft Library at UC Berkeley)

Anglo-American Legal Tradition: Documents from Medieval and Early Modern England from the National Archives in London (extensive and chronologically and geographically organized if unindexed set of imagery of medieval English legal documents)

Archivos Digitales (a great listing of online digital archival collections in many languages; hosted by the Spanish-language site

17th and 18th Century Paleographic (and other) Resources Online (great collection of useful links; hosted by Yale University)

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Miscellaneous History & Archive Pages

Internal Pages

Colonial-Era Spanish Language Resources (my own web page with an assortment of links to historical Spanish-Spanish and Spanish-English dictionaries and grammatical texts dating between 1726 and 1848)

Colonial-Era Spanish Law (my own web page with links to digitized versions of original published summaries of laws pertaining to Spain's colonies, dating to between 1681 and 1791)

Colonial-Era Spanish Catholic Liturgical Calendar (my own web page with extracted transcriptions and original imagery from Roman Breviaries dating to between 1542 and 1738)

Colonial-Era Recipes (my own web page with translations of selected Spanish recipes from the colonial era)

Colonial-Era Weights and Measures (my own web page with tables of equivalencies and conversions of a wide range of Spanish colonial-era weights and measures)

Primer on Using Online Colonial Spanish Archival Sites (my own web page with detailed instructions for using thePARES Search Engine for the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain, and the Online Guide to the Archivo Histórico Nacional in Mexico City)


External Pages

ArchiveGrid (great cross-referenced search engine including inventories of many archives in different locations)

Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842 (a wonderful online collection of digitized document images from various archives, searchable or browsable by date, type, collection, or institution)

Vocabulario de Comercio Medieval (a very useful compilation of antiquated terms of material culture dating to the early Spanish colonial era, from the research of Miguel Gual Camarena during the 1970s, hosted by the University of Murcia)

Google Books (a massive and growing searchable digital repository of scanned historical books, including many of importance for understanding the Spanish colonial world; see the appropriate section of my Primer on Using Online Colonial Spanish Documentary Sources for detailed instructions on how to utilize this important website).

Targeted searches: Pre-1830 ( Spanish / French  / English ) / Pre-1600

American Memory (the searchable Library of Congress website with a range of historical resources)

Archivos Digitales (a great listing of online digital archival collections in many languages; hosted by the Spanish-language site

Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (a useful search engine with reference information, online transcriptions, and digital imagery of many historical publications)

500 Años de México en Documentos (a wide assortment of transcriptions of original documents from every decade throughout Mexican history)

CubaGenWeb (a useful site containing scanned PDF files of the Cuban genealogy magazine Revista, as well as a good overview of and links to historical sources for Cuban genealogy and history)

Early Americas Digital Archive: Web Gateway (an excellent selection of online texts from a variety of different sources)

The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 1610 to 1791 (massive online collection of transcribed late 19th-century translations of French Jesuit documents relating to North America, including French Canada and Louisiana, originally edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites).

American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement (a collection of online translations and transcriptions, sponsored by the Wisconsin Historical Society; includes some Florida sources, many from older translations)

University of Florida Digital Collections (links to a variety of online digital archival material)

Florida History Online (an assortment of online resources about Florida history, including several extensive sets of documentary transcriptions and translations, focusing principally on Florida's British Period and later)

PALMM (main page of the "Publication of Archival Library and Museum Materials" site for Florida libraries, including a wide variety of sources from historical texts and maps to mid-20th-century aerial photo series)

Smithsonian Collections Search Center (search engine for a wide range of texts and images on file at various Smithsonian repositories, including DeSoto Expedition Commission materials, etc.)

Papers of the War Department, 1784-1800 (searchable online collection of a wide range of early American manuscript documents, including Indian Affairs documents relating to Second Spanish Florida) (extensive digital collection of historical and modern maps, documents, and other historical resources from around the world, including many relating to Spanish colonial efforts in North America)

The History Cooperative (extensive nonprofit resource center with a range of journals and other materials of interest)

West Florida Genealogy Library (great genealogy and local history collection owned by the West Florida Genealogical Society and housed at the West Florida Public Library)

17th and 18th Century Paleographic (and other) Resources Online (great collection of useful links; hosted by Yale University)

Early Modern Resources (diverse site focusing on the period from 1500-1800)

Cyclopaedia (searchable digital scan of the original 1728 Cyclopaedia: An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences by Ephraim Chambers; hosted by the University of Wisconsin)

Ecclesiastical Calendar Calulator(reliable site to calculate historical dates for Easter, as well as a table showing the related dates for other important Catholic feast days, which were commonly used instead of numerical dates in historical texts from the Spanish colonial era)

Calendar Calculator (an easy-to-use date calculator that shows the day of the week for any date in history, including Gregorian (post-1582) and Julian calendars, as well as several other more exotic calendar systems)

Calculate Duration between Two Dates (great calculator for calculating the number of days, months, etc. between specific dates)

Universalis (current Roman Catholic liturgical calendar, focusing on Breviary use) (comprehensive and easily-navigated site with information on Roman Catholic saints, whose feast days were commonly used instead of numerical dates in historical texts from the Spanish colonial era)

La legislación colonial española de Indias (good site in Spanish with historical details regarding legislation in the New World, including the full facsimile text of the Recopilacion de Leyes de los Reynos de las Indias de 1680)

Chronological Listing of Tropical Cyclones affecting North Florida and Coastal Georgia 1565-1899 (great site with information regarding hurricanes and tropical storms during the Spanish period and later) (good source for modern unit conversions, including a few generalized "Old Spanish" measures such asDistance and Length and Area).

Multilingual Archive Terminology (useful compilation by the International Council on Archives) (excellent site in English detailing many facets of life in Seville, from hotels and food to sightseeing and festivals)

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